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Oct 1, A New Journal: Radioelectronics and Communications Systems (Izvestiya VUZ: Radioelektronika) Vol. 20, No. 1. Show all authors. Epub Oct 6. (2)Department of Radioelectronics, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague , Czech Republic. doi: /hbm Epub Oct 6. (1)Institute of Radioelectronics, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland. (2)Imagilys SPRL, Brussels, Belgium.
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Vanyushin, B. Et Biophys. Acta, , , Li, E. Spring Harbor NY : Some cortical structures seem to be more affected by domestication than other areas developed at earlier phylogenetic stages. We analyzed 50 segmented brain regions based on the MRI Schwarz atlas and extensively studied the structures which could be coupled with biobehavioral profile changes during the domestication process such as lower aggression, socio-positive maternal behavior and cognitive abilities, as well as less hormonal stress responses [ 44 ].
These changes are caused by systematic selection made by humans and adaptations to the exposure to strictly defined artificial environments with standardized diet, low level of external stimuli or without threat from the predators.
The relative total cortex volume in laboratory rats was smaller than in wild rats. After cortex segmentation there were a reduction in almost all of cortical structures volume in albino Wistar rats and in few in BN.
In particular we observed significant differences in some functionally related parts of cortex, especially in the area responsible for processing sensory information visual, retrosplenial, parietal and auditory cortex or controlling movements motor cortex. These areas are essential for the survival of animals in the wild and were significantly decreased in laboratory rats. Similarly, decrease in total cortex and areas involved in processing of the sensory information and motor system was found both in early domesticated mammals eg.
Only the entorhinal cortex which is considered to be periallocortex and is involved in spatial learning in rodents was significantly larger in WI rats compared to wild rats. Changes in structures related to sensory processing and motor functions Many laboratory strains of this species are albinotic and develop various ocular pathologies resulting in impaired visual acuity [ 45 ] as well as structural abnormalities in the connections of the occipital cortex [ 16 ].
Importantly, abnormalities in the functioning of the visual system are manifested already in very young animals eg. Also, the retrosplenial and temporal association cortex which border and have functional connections with the visual cortex presented a smaller volume in WI then in pigmented rats.
Our study confirms that changes in visual acuity in albinotic Wistar rats lead to structural changes in the vision-related areas. This diminution of visual structures could be a remarkable example for conspecific variability and brain plasticity. This fact should be considered during selecting animal models for neurological studies, especially for behavioral tests associated with vision. We detected only slight differences in somatosensory cortex that is involved in processing of proprioception and touch, including whiskers sensory system volume between BN and WWCPS.
However the sensory association areas, such as, the parietal cortex that integrates sensorimotor information among various modalities visual, auditory, whiskers was significantly decreased in laboratory rats. Such a notable reduction was not observed in albino WI rats.
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The principal auditory relay, the medial geniculate nucleus was even slightly enhanced in WI. In rats, smell plays an important role in recognition of their offspring and partners or predators and searching for food. In domesticated animals, the components of the olfactory system in particular the olfactory bulbs are usually reduced.
Other structures involved in the sense of smell such as olfactory nuclei and olfactory tubercles and entorhinal cortex were relatively bigger in WI than WWCPS but not in the BN rat. The larger olfactory- and auditory-related brain structures in albino rats than in pigmented animals could be a result of compensation for the visual impairment, i.
In the natural environment wild animals have to escape from predators, explore large areas to find food, shelter or mates. Laboratory rats show less exploratory behavior than their wild conspecifics [ 48 ].
The motor cortex which is the area of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, commanding and controlling voluntary movements were significantly smaller in laboratory rats when compared to wild rats.
Laboratory rats had also noticeably smaller parietal and retrosplenial cortex, structures which has connection with motor cortex and play a role in navigational motor planning. For example, it was shown that destruction of a part of the retrosplenial cortex resulted in worse spatial movement parameters such as running speed in rats [ 49 ].
The reduction of motor areas in the cortex was also noted in other domesticated mammals [ 50 ].
It could be explained by breeding in restricted space with limited ability to perform motor activities. Changes in structures possibly related to emotions and stress reaction Artificial selection during domestication leads to consolidation of traits that are more advantageous and desirable for humans.
Namely, animals are selected which present less aggression toward people and other animals, more sociable behavior, high fecundity, and diminished stress responsiveness caused by crowding in cages and restriction of movement. Our study shows significant differences in the relative volume of the entorhinal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus and nucleus accumbens in laboratory rats compared to their wild counterparts.
These structures are involved in the regulation of various functions including memory and emotional response such as aggression, fear or motivation. Notably, Wistar stock is characterized by extremely docile behavior and high fertility. Hippocampus was relatively larger in both laboratory strains than in wild rats. Dorsal hippocampus, which in rodents is involved mainly in spatial memory [ 51 ], was slightly bigger. This structure, responsible for learning and memory function, is also involved in modulation of anxiety and aggression [ 52 ].
Similarly, in farm-bred foxes Vulpes vulpes selected for tameness Huang et al. Generally, the amygdala has definitely increased in size during evolution process [ 54 ]. Significantly higher relative volume in amygdala was noted in both laboratory strains.
Similarly, slight increase of relative volume was found, by Kruska for the amygdala volume, in domesticated guinea pig when compared to wild cavies [ 47 ].
The increased of relative volume was also shown in WI rats in the core and shell of nucleus accumbens. These structures are involved in the cognitive processing of reward, aggression and sexual behavior in rats.
The most pronounced differences were observed in the accumbens shell which is strongly connected to amygdala.
Changes in structures related to memory and learning Until recently, it was considered that due to domestication the brain size is reduced and animals lose a lot of their cognitive and learning abilities. However, a recent study on spatial learning with use the Morris water maze shows that some domestic animals such as Guinea pig or Mongolian gerbil [ 44 , 55 ] have equivalent or even better learning performance than their wild ancestors.
These findings are similar to those on rats, in which the laboratory rats might also outperform the wild rats in spatial learning and memory tasks [ 56 , 57 ].After cortex segmentation there were a reduction in almost all of cortical structures volume in albino Wistar rats and in few in BN.
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Bhattacharya, S. Also, the retrosplenial and temporal association cortex which border and have functional connections with the visual cortex presented a smaller volume in WI then in pigmented rats.
In domesticated animals, the components of the olfactory system in particular the olfactory bulbs are usually reduced.
Weinsburg, S. Domesticated animals including laboratory rats seem to adapt faster to man-made environment and better cooperate with the experimenter, whereas wild animals exhibit excessive emotional responses and they are more susceptible to stress during the test.
On the fourth day animals were injected by sarcoma and daily exposure was continued during 15 days. Vice compassion, skyward insight, lest foundational storytelling, lung backwith leadershiphuman once throughly diplomas our banks with her kill dehors the tradeswomen that can insist outside her hex unto "special" children.
Changes in structures possibly related to emotions and stress reaction Artificial selection during domestication leads to consolidation of traits that are more advantageous and desirable for humans. Both traditional and electronic atlases are used for animals of different strains on the condition that they represent the same maturation state and do not display severe anatomical abnormalities [ 21 , 29 ].
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